Jewels And Gems

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Jewels And Gems

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The Birthstone collection gathers all the Birthstones for each month of the year, and channel your gemstone's energy. Each Zodiac collection gathers a selection of gemstones and healing crystals to attract a specific energy that your sign is associated with, in order to restore balance and live your life to the fullest potential.

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The part that is reflected reaches the eye as the perceived color. A ruby appears red because it absorbs all the other colors of white light, while reflecting the red.

A material which is mostly the same can exhibit different colors. For example, ruby and sapphire have the same primary chemical composition both are corundum but exhibit different colors because of impurities.

Even the same named gemstone can occur in many different colors: sapphires show different shades of blue and pink and "fancy sapphires" exhibit a whole range of other colors from yellow to orange-pink, the latter called " padparadscha sapphire ".

This difference in color is based on the atomic structure of the stone. Although the different stones formally have the same chemical composition and structure, they are not exactly the same.

Every now and then an atom is replaced by a completely different atom, sometimes as few as one in a million atoms. These so-called impurities are sufficient to absorb certain colors and leave the other colors unaffected.

For example, beryl , which is colorless in its pure mineral form, becomes emerald with chromium impurities. If manganese is added instead of chromium , beryl becomes pink morganite.

With iron, it becomes aquamarine. Some gemstone treatments make use of the fact that these impurities can be "manipulated", thus changing the color of the gem.

Gemstones are often treated to enhance the color or clarity of the stone. Depending on the type and extent of treatment, they can affect the value of the stone.

Some treatments are used widely because the resulting gem is stable, while others are not accepted most commonly because the gem color is unstable and may revert to the original tone.

Heat can either improve or spoil gemstone color or clarity. The heating process has been well known to gem miners and cutters for centuries, and in many stone types heating is a common practice.

Aquamarine is often heated to remove yellow tones, or to change green colors into the more desirable blue, or enhance its existing blue color to a deeper blue.

When jewelry containing diamonds is heated for repairs the diamond should be protected with boric acid ; otherwise the diamond which is pure carbon could be burned on the surface or even burned completely up.

When jewelry containing sapphires or rubies is heated, those stones should not be coated with boracic acid which can etch the surface or any other substance.

They do not have to be protected from burning, like a diamond although the stones do need to be protected from heat stress fracture by immersing the part of the jewelry with stones in water when metal parts are heated.

Virtually all blue topaz , both the lighter and the darker blue shades such as "London" blue, has been irradiated to change the color from white to blue.

Most greened quartz Oro Verde is also irradiated to achieve the yellow-green color. Diamonds are irradiated to produce fancy-color diamonds which can occur naturally, though rarely in gem quality.

Emeralds containing natural fissures are sometimes filled with wax or oil to disguise them. This wax or oil is also colored to make the emerald appear of better color as well as clarity.

Turquoise is also commonly treated in a similar manner. Fracture filling has been in use with different gemstones such as diamonds, emeralds and sapphires.

In "glass filled rubies" received publicity. Such treatments are fairly easy to detect. Synthetic gems are physically, optically, and chemically identical to the natural stone, but are created in a laboratory.

Examples of simulated or imitation stones include cubic zirconia , composed of zirconium oxide, synthetic moissanite , and un-colored, synthetic corrundum or spinels ; all of which are diamond simulants.

The simulants imitate the look and color of the real stone, but possess neither their chemical nor physical characteristics.

In general, all are less hard than diamond. Moissanite actually has a higher refractive index than diamond, and when presented beside an equivalently sized and cut diamond will show more "fire".

Cultured, synthetic, or "lab-created" gemstones are not imitations: The bulk mineral and trace coloring elements are the same in both.

For example, diamonds , rubies , sapphires , and emeralds have been manufactured in labs that possess chemical and physical characteristics identical to the naturally occurring variety.

Synthetic lab created corrundum , including ruby and sapphire, is very common and costs much less than the natural stones. Small synthetic diamonds have been manufactured in large quantities as industrial abrasives , although larger gem-quality synthetic diamonds are becoming available in multiple carats.

Whether a gemstone is a natural stone or synthetic, the chemical, physical, and optical characteristics are the same: They are composed of the same mineral and are colored by the same trace materials, have the same hardness and density and strength , and show the same color spectrum , refractive index , and birefringence if any.

Lab-created stones tend to have a more vivid color, since impurities common in natural stones are not present in a synthetic stone.

Synthetics are made free of common naturally occurring impurities that reduce gem clarity or color, unless intentionally added in order to provide a more drab, natural appearance, or to deceive an assayer.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Piece of mineral crystal used to make jewelry. Several terms redirect here.

For other uses, see Gemstone disambiguation , Gem disambiguation , Gems disambiguation , Jewels disambiguation and Precious Stone disambiguation.

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By joining our mailing list, you will receive a secret discount code that you can apply on your first order! The Birthstone collection gathers all the Birthstones for each month of the year, and channel your gemstone's energy.

Each Zodiac collection gathers a selection of gemstones and healing crystals to attract a specific energy that your sign is associated with, in order to restore balance and live your life to the fullest potential.

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Your cart Close Alternative Icon. View all results. In modern use the precious stones are diamond , ruby , sapphire and emerald , with all other gemstones being semi-precious.

Other stones are classified by their color, translucency and hardness. The traditional distinction does not necessarily reflect modern values, for example, while garnets are relatively inexpensive, a green garnet called tsavorite can be far more valuable than a mid-quality emerald.

Use of the terms 'precious' and 'semi-precious' in a commercial context is, arguably, misleading in that it deceptively implies certain stones are intrinsically more valuable than others, which is not necessarily the case.

In modern times gemstones are identified by gemologists , who describe gems and their characteristics using technical terminology specific to the field of gemology.

The first characteristic a gemologist uses to identify a gemstone is its chemical composition. For example, diamonds are made of carbon C and rubies of aluminium oxide Al 2 O 3.

Many gems are crystals which are classified by their crystal system such as cubic or trigonal or monoclinic. Another term used is habit , the form the gem is usually found in.

For example, diamonds, which have a cubic crystal system, are often found as octahedrons. Gemstones are classified into different groups , species , and varieties.

Other examples are the emerald green , aquamarine blue , red beryl red , goshenite colorless , heliodor yellow and morganite pink , which are all varieties of the mineral species beryl.

Gems are characterized in terms of refractive index , dispersion , specific gravity , hardness , cleavage , fracture and luster. They may exhibit pleochroism or double refraction.

They may have luminescence and a distinctive absorption spectrum. Material or flaws within a stone may be present as inclusions. Gemstones may also be classified in terms of their "water".

This is a recognized grading of the gem's luster, transparency, or "brilliance". Gemstones have no universally accepted grading system. Diamonds are graded [ by whom?

Historically, all gemstones were graded using the naked eye. The GIA system included a major innovation: the introduction of 10x magnification as the standard for grading clarity.

A mnemonic device , the "four Cs" color, cut, clarity, and carats , has been introduced [ by whom? The four criteria carry different weight depending upon whether they are applied to colored gemstones or to colorless diamonds.

In diamonds, cut is the primary determinant of value, followed by clarity and color. The ideal cut diamond will sparkle, to break down light into its constituent rainbow colors dispersion , chop it up into bright little pieces scintillation , and deliver it to the eye brilliance.

In its rough crystalline form, a diamond will do none of these things; it requires proper fashioning and this is called "cut".

In gemstones that have color, including colored diamonds, the purity and beauty of that color is the primary determinant of quality.

Physical characteristics that make a colored stone valuable are color, clarity to a lesser extent emeralds will always have a number of inclusions , cut, unusual optical phenomena within the stone such as color zoning the uneven distribution of coloring within a gem and asteria star effects.

Ancient Greeks, for example, greatly valued asteria gemstones, which they regarded as powerful love charms , and Helen of Troy was known to have worn star- corundum.

Aside from the diamond , the ruby , sapphire , emerald , pearl not, strictly speaking, a gemstone , and opal [12] have also been considered [ by whom?

Up to the discoveries of bulk amethyst in Brazil in the 19th century, amethyst was considered a "precious stone" as well, going back to ancient Greece.

Even in the last century certain stones such as aquamarine , peridot and cat's eye cymophane have been popular and hence been regarded as precious.

Today the gemstone trade no longer makes such a distinction. Nevertheless, diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and emeralds still have a reputation that exceeds those of other gemstones.

Rare or unusual gemstones, generally understood to include those gemstones which occur so infrequently in gem quality that they are scarcely known except to connoisseurs, include andalusite , axinite , cassiterite , clinohumite and red beryl.

Gemstone pricing and value are governed by factors and characteristics in the quality of the stone. These characteristics include clarity, rarity, freedom from defects, beauty of the stone, as well as the demand for such stones.

There are different pricing influencers for both colored gemstones, and for diamonds. The pricing on colored stones is determined by market supply-and-demand, but diamonds are more intricate.

Proponents of energy medicine also value gemstones on the basis of alleged healing powers. There are a number of laboratories which grade and provide reports on gemstones.

Each laboratory has its own methodology to evaluate gemstones. A stone can be called "pink" by one lab while another lab calls it "padparadscha".

One lab can conclude a stone is untreated, while another lab might conclude that it is heat-treated.

Country of origin has sometimes been difficult to determine, due to the constant discovery of new source locations. Determining a "country of origin" is thus much more difficult than determining other aspects of a gem such as cut, clarity, etc.

Gem dealers are aware of the differences between gem laboratories and will make use of the discrepancies to obtain the best possible certificate.

A few gemstones are used as gems in the crystal or other form in which they are found. Most however, are cut and polished for usage as jewelry.

The two main classifications are stones cut as smooth, dome shaped stones called cabochons , and stones which are cut with a faceting machine by polishing small flat windows called facets at regular intervals at exact angles.

Stones which are opaque or semi-opaque such as opal , turquoise , variscite , etc. These gems are designed to show the stone's color or surface properties as in opal and star sapphires.

Grinding wheels and polishing agents are used to grind, shape and polish the smooth dome shape of the stones.

Gems which are transparent are normally faceted, a method which shows the optical properties of the stone's interior to its best advantage by maximizing reflected light which is perceived by the viewer as sparkle.

There are many commonly used shapes for faceted stones. The facets must be cut at the proper angles, which varies depending on the optical properties of the gem.

If the angles are too steep or too shallow, the light will pass through and not be reflected back toward the viewer.

The faceting machine is used to hold the stone onto a flat lap for cutting and polishing the flat facets. The color of any material is due to the nature of light itself.

Daylight, often called white light, is all of the colors of the spectrum combined. When light strikes a material, most of the light is absorbed while a smaller amount of a particular frequency or wavelength is reflected.

The part that is reflected reaches the eye as the perceived color. A ruby appears red because it absorbs all the other colors of white light, while reflecting the red.

A material which is mostly the same can exhibit different colors. For example, ruby and sapphire have the same primary chemical composition both are corundum but exhibit different colors because of impurities.

Even the same named gemstone can occur in many different colors: sapphires show different shades of blue and pink and "fancy sapphires" exhibit a whole range of other colors from yellow to orange-pink, the latter called " padparadscha sapphire ".

This difference in color is based on the atomic structure of the stone. Although the different stones formally have the same chemical composition and structure, they are not exactly the same.

Every now and then an atom is replaced by a completely different atom, sometimes as few as one in a million atoms.

These so-called impurities are sufficient to absorb certain colors and leave the other colors unaffected. For example, beryl , which is colorless in its pure mineral form, becomes emerald with chromium impurities.

If manganese is added instead of chromium , beryl becomes pink morganite. With iron, it becomes aquamarine. Some gemstone treatments make use of the fact that these impurities can be "manipulated", thus changing the color of the gem.

Gemstones are often treated to enhance the color or clarity of the stone. Depending on the type and extent of treatment, they can affect the value of the stone.

Some treatments are used widely because the resulting gem is stable, while others are not accepted most commonly because the gem color is unstable and may revert to the original tone.

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